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  • Is Person-First or Diagnosis-First Language Better? A Clinical Psychology and Autism Podcast Episode

    Over the past few months, the impact of language and what we call people with mental health conditions has been highlighted to me in a lot of different places. For example, in the newest academic papers, my lectures and even now we talk about people with conditions in clinical psychology. And in this brilliant podcast episode, we look at what impact does language have on people with mental health conditions, and most importantly, what is the best term to use to describe this group of people. If you enjoy autism, clinical psychology and more, then you will love today’s episode. This episode has been sponsored by Developmental Psychology: A Guide To Developmental And Child Psychology. Available from all major eBook retailers and you can order the paperback and hardback copies from Amazon, your local bookstore and local library, if you request it. Introduction To “Person With Autism” or “Autistic Person” As a result of me fully believing in honesty between me and you, as my wonderful podcast audience, I first encountered this when I was working with a PhD student on my Gamification of Autism literature review back in May. I just thought that he was being a bit nit-picky because he wasn’t sure on what term to use because this language is very new, but I am seeing it more and more so that’s why I want to focus on it now. Therefore, I just thought this being a little too correct because from my point of view, labels, diagnosis and more, all of them can be damaging and stigmatising and harmful in their own right, and I have written about these impacts in different places. However, when I returned to university this September and we started having autism lectures, I realised the drive towards correct language is very real, good and it needs to happen. But again, no one is taking the time to explain the language to me as a student, so I found some research and now I want to help explain this to all of us. Let’s crack on with it then. Also, I should mention here that there is a fair amount of today’s episode focuses on the carer’s experience of using language. But at the end of the podcast episode, I do explain how this applies to us as current or future clinical psychologists. Person-First and Condition-First Language I seriously doubt this will come as a surprise to anyone but the vast majority of people’s understanding of autism comes from the biomedical model standpoint. This model sees autism as a disease and it normally uses person-first language. For example, “Person With Autism” (Kenny et al., 2016). In addition, I am very happy to know that despite the damage some labels can do to people with mental health conditions, there are a lot of parents of young people on the autistic spectrum that find the diagnosis process reassuring. Since it validates their concerns about their child’s well-being, behaviour and future, as well as it offers a roadmap of support. But it gets rather interesting when we realise that other parents and children find the process of integrating the concept of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) into their narrative about their child’s very identity to be very confronting. As a result of lots of carers and parents go through a process of redefining their expectations towards their child, and some even grieve for the former expectations they have about parenting a neurotypical child. Personally, I just want to jump in here and mention that I do understand this wholeheartedly, because if you’re a parent or you have nieces and nephews then you do plan for the future. Like I should have a niece coming next May and of course, me and my family are already planning for things for the future and far future, so if those ideas are effectively ripped away and made “impossible” then this can be very upsetting. However, I also want to point out here that just because a child as ASC, it doesn’t mean they can’t do anything in life. Since given the right support and scaffolding, autistic children can do a lot that neurotypical children can. Anyway, if case you didn’t know, in the UK at least, ASC diagnosis takes years and of course, the person with autism continues to show their autistic behaviour. Therefore, by the time the carers and parents receive a diagnosis, the vast majority of these are absolutely no stranger to being judged by others (Rowan, 2013) and they experience increased levels of stress (Bonis, 2016). This happens because their child’s special needs and these tend to have a commodity with conditions. For instance, anxiety, attention challenges, sleep difficulties and disruptive disorders (Mutler et al., 2022) and this all has financial implications too (Tathgur and Kang, 2021). Why Do Carers and Parents Choose A Language Preference? Moving onto the main topic of this episode, even before a parent or carer has received an ASC diagnosis for their child, they might choose a language preference to help set a boundary surrounding the identity narrative they want to create for their loved one. This serves a few purposes, including it helps to gently assimilate the new reality of the diagnosis into the perception of their loved one. Moreover, the heterogeneous nature of ASC adds to a carer’s uncertainty about the impact of early autism interventions on their child’s symptomatology. As well as it’s important to note here that every single child on the autistic spectrum is different with the frequency and severity of their symptoms changing over time. This all makes it a lot more difficult for carers to experience acceptance. Why Do People Choose Person-First Language Initially? With diagnosis mainly being from the biomedical model, it leaves parents and carers wanting to use Person-First language initially for a few reasons. For example, if the carer comes from a counselling or mental health vocation then person-first language could come from their own personal preference. Also, person-first language is effective for their limited awareness of the experiences of autistic people from their own point of view. As well as lots of carers are uncertain about how the diagnosis will affect their child’s sense of self and being in the world. Furthermore, once a carer has a diagnosis, they slowly or quickly start expanding their awareness of what ASC means over the course of years. Because we need to appreciate as current or future psychologists that this is a very scary time because these carers do not know what ASC is, what it means and what help is available. That’s why part of our job in an ideal world is to help guide them through the process. As a result, the carer’s knowledge expands over the course of years and they have a clearer understanding of what being on the autistic spectrum actually means for their child, and this includes how the child sees themselves. For instance, lots of carers notice how they learn to appreciate the cherished aspects of their personality and this includes the aspects that are intertwined with them on the spectrum. It also includes the acknowledgement of the challenges the person faces but also the celebration of their growth and their achievements. Subsequently, as a carer’s experience of acceptance deepens, sometimes their language preference shifts so they prefer disability-first terminology. Nonetheless, I know I am focusing a lot on the carer’s viewpoint here, and normally I would flat out avoid this because personally I am only really interested in what the person with the condition is experiencing. But in this case, there are a lot of narratives and evidence of this coming from the carers of children with ASC. Consequently, I am absolutely not saying children with the condition do not have the right to choose their own language preference or what they want to be called. Because they seriously do have that right and everyone else does too. I am simply writing about this from what the research and other articles I can find says. Why Might Diagnosis-First Language Be Better? It turns out that whilst diagnosis-first language isn’t too common in certain fields, like counselling, it has been suggested by Brown (2012) to be associated with greater acceptance of autistic people as neurodiverse and this helps to go beyond the disorder model perspective on autism. Furthermore, Kenny et al. (2016) found that despite some variability, a lot of parents and carers of ASC children generally prefer diagnosis-first terminology, as it places an emphasis on the value-neutral neurodiversity and positive aspects of autism. Overall, modern research suggests that identifying as autistic does have a positive impact on the self-esteem of autistic people and lowers their risk of developing depression (cage et al., 2017) What Does This Mean For Clinical Psychologists? As current or future psychologists, I definitely feel like there are quite a few different takeaways for us to learn from. For example, I will always firmly believe that is it critical that we move away from the disorder-perspective model of all conditions because that isn’t how mental health conditions work and it is so biomedical model that I seriously doubt has any place in modern clinical psychology. Therefore, using diagnosis-first language is important. Not only for us as professionals because it shows how serious we are about moving away from the biomedical model and towards something more empirical and something akin to the biopsychosocial model. However, it is also important for us to start using diagnosis-first language because it addresses something that is so wonderfully critical to our profession. It helps to decrease depression, psychological distress and it helps to improve self-esteem. Since being on the spectrum does not make a person messed up, strange or weird, and if using Diagnosis-first language helps our clients and the people we are meant to be help. Then this is only a good thing. Personally, and as the final thing for this section, I will mention that I was very surprised by today’s podcast episode. Since I fully believed coming into the topic that person-first language was the best because it should be harmful to define someone only by their condition, but it turns out that whilst that is true in other areas, when it comes to person-first or diagnosis-first language, it is better to do diagnosis-first. And that is why I love this podcast, learning and psychology, because there is always something to surprise you. Conclusion: At the end of this great episode, I think the most important thing we need to remember here is that diagnosis-first language isn’t bad, and in fact, it can have a lot of great benefits for a person’s mental health and acceptance. So personally, I really hope that we continue to debate the impact of language, we keep researching it and hopefully, over time more and more people will start to adopt this more positive language, and in an ideal world our society’s definition of autism will change too, to become more positive and accepting. Being autistic isn’t a death sentence, a prison sentence or anything. And just because you’re autistic, it doesn’t mean you cannot do things to a large extent. It just means you think differently, you might need more support but I always come back to one of the founding principles of the Mental Capacity Act. We should never ever assume someone cannot do something just because of their condition. And that seriously applies to autism. I really hope you enjoyed today’s clinical psychology podcast episode. If you want to learn more, please check out: FREE 8 PSYCHOLOGY BOOK BOXSET Developmental Psychology: A Guide To Developmental And Child Psychology. Available from all major eBook retailers and you can order the paperback and hardback copies from Amazon, your local bookstore and local library, if you request it. Buy Me A Coffee Have a great day. Clinical Psychology References APA (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: APA Bonis S. Stress and Parents of Children with Autism: A Review of Literature. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2016;37(3):153-63. doi: 10.3109/01612840.2015.1116030. PMID: 27028741. Brown, Lydia (2 March 2012). "Identity First Language". Autistic Self Advocacy Network. Cage, E., Di Monaco, J. and Newell, V., 2017. Experiences of Autism Acceptance and Mental Health in Autistic Adults. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(2), pp.473-484. Crompton, C. J., Hallett, S., Ropar, D., Flynn, E., & Fletcher-watson, S. (2020). ‘I never realised everybody felt as happy as I do when I am around autistic people’: A thematic analysis of autistic adults’ relationships with autistic and neurotypical friends and family. Autism, 136236132090897. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361320908976 Siegel, D., 2012. Pocket Guide to Interpersonal Neurobiology: An Integrative Handbook of the Mind. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. Hayes SA, Watson SL. The impact of parenting stress: a meta-analysis of studies comparing the experience of parenting stress in parents of children with and without autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 Mar;43(3):629-42. doi: 10.1007/s10803-012-1604-y. PMID: 22790429. Kenny L, Hattersley C, Molins B, Buckley C, Povey C, Pellicano E. Which terms should be used to describe autism? Perspectives from the UK autism community. Autism. 2016 May;20(4):442-62. doi: 10.1177/1362361315588200. Epub 2015 Jul 1. PMID: 26134030. livescience.com. 2022. Parents Rank 'Judgment' as a Big Problem in Raising a Child with Autism. [online] Available at: <https://www.livescience.com/36555-parents-judgment-problem-autism-behav…; [Accessed 15 July 2022]. Mutluer T, Aslan Genç H, Özcan Morey A, Yapici Eser H, Ertinmaz B, Can M, Munir K. Population-Based Psychiatric Comorbidity in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis. Front Psychiatry. 2022 May 23;13:856208. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.856208. PMID: 35693977; PMCID: PMC9186340. https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/nurturing-self-esteem-in-autistic-children/202207/autistic-person-or-person-autism Tathgur MK, Kang HK. Challenges of the Caregivers in Managing a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder— A Qualitative Analysis. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2021;43(5):416-421. doi:10.1177/02537176211000769 I truly hope that you’ve enjoyed this blog post and if you feel like supporting the blog on an ongoing basis and get lots of rewards, then please head to my Patreon page. However, if want to show one-time support and appreciation, the place to do that is PayPal. If you do that, please include your email address in the notes section, so I can say thank you. Which I am going to say right now. Thank you! Click https://www.buymeacoffee.com/connorwhiteley for a one-time bit of support. Click www.paypal.me/connorwhiteley1 to go to PayPal.

  • Why Do Couples Breakup? A Social Psychology and Clinical Psychology Podcast Episode.

    After looking at some great topics in reason weeks, I wanted a bit of a platter-cleanser-style episode where we look at a really fun topic and something that all of us can relate too. Therefore, in this fascinating episode, we look at the 12 reasons why couples break up and the different outcomes this can have on people’s mental health. Today’s episode has been sponsored by Psychology of Relationships: The Social Psychology of Friendships, Romantic Relationships and More Fourth Edition. Available from all major eBook retailers and you can order the paperback and hardback copies from Amazon, your local bookstore and local library, if you request it. Why Do We Need To Look At Why Couples Break Up? The main reason why I want to look at this is because the main audience for the podcast is psychology students and professionals and anyone interested in psychology. And just because we love psychology, it doesn’t make us immune to break-ups and other relationship-related behaviours. Therefore, I want to look at it for all of us so you listeners can get a better understanding. However, if we look towards our clients, then relationship breakdown can seriously impact their mental health, so by looking at this topic, it helps us to gain insight how they’re feeling as well. For example, Rhoades et al. (2011) showed that break-ups can increase a person’s psychological distress as well as reduce their life satisfaction, and it’s interesting to note that break-ups can impact a person’s mental health for months, and even years, after it happened. In addition, after a relationship ends, it’s important for people to take notice and think about what went wrong. This can be done by themselves or friends or with the help of a therapist. This can be a good thing to do as it helps the person to make sure they don’t enter a similarly vulnerable situation again in the future. Additionally, this is exactly why it’s a good idea to be at least aware of the common things that lead to break-ups, so you can help to manage your own relationship and maybe even steer yourself in a better direction in the future. And I just want to say here that if you listen to today’s episode and you realise that you might want to change a few things in your relationship. One, I think that’s a healthy attitude to have because it shows you care about the relationship, and two, I seriously doubt you’ll be alone. Building upon that last point further, break-ups really are just part of life because Rhoades et al. (2011) also showed that a third of unmarried people between the ages of 18 to 35 have had a breakup in the past two years. Why Do Couples Break Up? Personally, I always find it interesting to read these sort of research articles because it is an area I would never personally research, because I can imagine this sort of thing gets depressing after a while. But I do really admire the researchers that want to investigate this area. Therefore, according to Gravningen et al. (2017), here are the 12 most common reasons why couples in the UK breakup: · They Grew Apart · Arguments · Unfaithfulness · Lack of Respect · Different Interests · Moved (presumably one partner wanted to move away for some reason and the other didn’t follow) · Money Issues · Not Sharing Housework I can really imagine a bunch of people nodding their heads now, because I think that will be a seriously annoying thing I find in the future. · Difficulties with sex · Domestic Violence · Not Wanting Children (Presumably when the other partner does) · Drugs, gambling or drinking Personally, before I explore the results in any great depth, I just want to mention my thoughts on them, because they are interesting. Since the first five or so aren’t surprising in the slightest, and I can fully understand why not sharing housework is a factor in breaking up. Yet different interests I find interesting, because I personally believe it’s healthy to have your own things in relationships so you effectively have you time or your space. But this finding raises the point that you always need to strike a balance, as with everything in life, so you still have your time and interests but you have shared interests too, and effectively bond over. Overall, another interesting thing about the findings were that these factors were relatively consistent for both men and women. Since both genders said “arguments” and “growing apart” were the top-two reasons for breaking up. Yet there were some gender differences as well, because women were more likely than men to say “lack of respect” was a more important factor for breaking up, along with “money issues”, “domestic violence” and “not sharing household responsibilities”. Furthermore, another reason this is important to look at is because Williamson et al. (2016) found many problems that led to a divorce were present at the beginning of the relationship. Therefore, it is very possible that if couples sort out of their issues sooner rather than later in a relationship, and do eventually get married, then they might save themselves the trouble of a divorce. On the other hand, we have to realise that people do heal from breakups and the damage, hurt and pain they cause aren’t permanent. As well as Gardner and Oswald (2005) found some vital findings showing divorcing couples do reap a lot of great psychological gains from the breaking up of their marriage and men and women tend to benefit equally in this regard. This can be supported with the following quote: “Divorce works. The evidence suggests that marital dissolution eventually produces a rise in psychological well-being. For those couples who take it, the leap into the dark seems to improve their lives.” Social Psychology Conclusion At the end of this episode, I am not denying that breakups are emotionally devastating, but, it is important to learn from it. We need to take time to reflect on what happened, what went wrong and what could we do in the future to protect ourselves from another let-down. I hope the 12 reasons we briefly looked at in this episode might help to give you a place to start. However, I will make this point very clear, you must not shelter away from the world after a breakup. You must at some point get back up and get back out on the dating scene, because sheltering yourself away out of fear will do you no good whatsoever. I really hope you enjoyed today’s clinical psychology podcast episode. If you want to learn more, please check out: FREE 8 PSYCHOLOGY BOOK BOXSET Psychology of Relationships: The Social Psychology of Friendships, Romantic Relationship and More Fourth Edition. Available from all major eBook retailers and you can order the paperback and hardback copies from Amazon, your local bookstore and local library, if you request it. Buy Me A Coffee Have a great day. Social and Clinical Psychology References Gardner, J., & Oswald, A. J. (2006). Do divorcing couples become happier by breaking up?. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 169(2), 319-336. Gravningen, K., Mitchell, K. R., Wellings, K., Johnson, A. M., Geary, R., Jones, K. G., ... & Mercer, C. H. (2017). Reported reasons for breakdown of marriage and cohabitation in Britain: Findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Plos one, 12(3), e0174129. Rhoades, G. K., Kamp Dush, C. M., Atkins, D. C., Stanley, S. M., & Markman, H. J. (2011). Breaking up is hard to do: the impact of unmarried relationship dissolution on mental health and life satisfaction. Journal of family psychology : JFP : journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43), 25(3), 366–374. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023627 Williamson, H. C., Nguyen, T. P., Bradbury, T. N., & Karney, B. R. (2016). Are problems that contribute to divorce present at the start of marriage, or do they emerge over time?. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 33(8), 1120-1134. I truly hope that you’ve enjoyed this blog post and if you feel like supporting the blog on an ongoing basis and get lots of rewards, then please head to my Patreon page. However, if want to show one-time support and appreciation, the place to do that is PayPal. If you do that, please include your email address in the notes section, so I can say thank you. Which I am going to say right now. Thank you! Click https://www.buymeacoffee.com/connorwhiteley for a one-time bit of support. Click www.paypal.me/connorwhiteley1 to go to PayPal.

  • How To Prevent Burnout In Autistic People and What Is Spoon Theory. A Clinical Psychology Podcast.

    Surprisingly enough, given how common autism is and how it is a major area in clinical psychology, I am surprised that we have never really looked at the condition on the podcast before. That is all about to change as we focus on how to prevent burnout in autistic people by looking at the Spoons Theory and how it can help them. If you’re interested in clinical psychology and autism then this is a great episode for you. Today’s episode of the podcast is sponsored by Developmental Psychology. Available from all major eBook retailers and you can order the paperback and hardback copies from Amazon, your local bookstore and local library, if you request it. Introduction To Autism Burnout and Spoons Theory As you probably know from your own life, everyone only has so much energy to use on work, socialising and their everyday life, but autistic people have a lot less energy for these sort of things than neurotypical people. As well as it is also extremely important to note that autistic people might have a lot more energy for certain things. For example, any of their special or restricted interests. However, it tends to be the things that people call the “daily grind” things that has the potential to overload our senses and it is this that autistic people find the most draining. Leading writer and speaker Christine Miserandino to come up with her Spoon Theory and this is most commonly used to explain what it feels like to have a limited amount of energy, and because of this a person has to make choices so they can hopefully avoid (or minimise) fatigue as well as burnout. Whilst she originally used this theory to explain her own chronic illness, it has been adopted by the autistic community to explain the similar energy limitations that autistic people constantly face. What Is Spoon Theory? The theory all starts with the idea that people who face a chronic illness or another condition, which in this case is autism, start their day with a set amount of energy, or in this case, spoons. As well as this is in direct contrast with other people without the condition who could have unlimited spoons and amounts of energy. Following this after a person does something, they will use up one of their spoons and once you’re used up a spoon, it’s gone and there aren’t any more spoons to replace it. Additionally, by doing certain tasks there is a chance a person might end up using more than one spoon for that task. For example, a person might have to load the dishwasher and uses up one spoon, but if a person has to write a psychology essay then that might use up two spoons. And I think this entire podcast audience can agree with me how painful some essays can be and we have all been drained after writing at least one essay. The entire point of this theory is that a person only starts off with so many spoons and once they’re gone, they are gone. It’s important to note that even when autistic people do something they enjoy they will still use spoons. A Possible Practical Implication and Swapping Spoons For Pebbles Yet some clinical psychologists, mental health professionals and researchers like Claire Jack, Ph.D have decided to take this idea into the real world and replace spoons with something else. Instead some clients prefer to think about spoons as pebbles because the great thing about this idea is that you can literally have a jar full of pebbles in the therapy room with you. Then if you’re doing some psychoeducation with the client, you can literally show them how this theory works using the practical example of taking pebbles out of the jar. Of course absolutely nothing on this podcast is ever official advice, but it is an interesting idea. Additionally, it has the added self-care benefit of helping to remind us all not to push ourselves beyond what our bodies can cope with so we can hopefully avoid burnout. What Happens When A Person Has No Pebbles Left? When a person has used up all of their pebbles then a person is more likely to have meltdowns, feel overwhelmed and reach a stage when they’re too fatigued to do much of anything. One of the reasons for this, and a bad habit that people do when they’re burnout, is to keep doing things that require a lot of energy and people basically pretend that they have an endless supply of pebbles. This only leads to greater exhaustion, fatigue and burnout. As well as the real risk here is that this fatigue might last longer and take the person greater effort to recover from compared to if they simply faced up to the fact that should have had a break earlier due to their lack of pebbles. Personally, I do understand this section because there have been so many times when I have just pushed on doing things because I wanted to be productive. Then later on, I found myself even more fatigued and exhausted and this lasted into some of the next day. Therefore, I really have learnt the hard way that you need to listen to your body and when you’re exhausted, you need to stop or face the consequences. Also, for people without these conditions like myself, we have unlimited (more or less) supplies of peddles or spoons, and it’s good to acknowledge that people with these conditions get frustrated that they have a limited supply. They don’t believe it’s fair, right or good that they have to consider conversing their energy. So when we meet people with their conditions, we need to be mindful of what they can do, of course only after they tell us what they can’t do. We must never ever assume they cannot do something because of a condition without finding out if they can’t do it. Yet we also need to be mindful and help them accept that it’s okay that they only have so much energy and it isn’t something to be ashamed of. Preparation Is Key And How To Replenish Pebbles I truly believe that this goes for everyone listening or reading this podcast episode, but to prevent burnout, we need to prevent ourselves from using up our allocated amount of pebbles. Of course this will be very hard to do but it’s important. Nonetheless, if we have already used up our pebbles and we are completely fatigued then we need to realise what do you need to do to replenish your energy. This will be different for everyone. You might want to read a good book, take a walk, be complete silence or do something else entirely. And we all have things that we can’t avoid, like university, parenting or work, so in this case we probably should ditch the things we don’t need to do and stop these things from draining us even more. Clinical Psychology Conclusion I have to admit that this was a rather different episode from normal, but this was needed. I really wanted to do this episode because we needed to look at autism, how autistic people’s lack of energy for the everyday grind impacts them and most importantly how to help them. I’m sure there are listeners of the podcast with autistic family members, and if that’s you then I hope this helped. If not, then I hope you found it interesting, and you never know you might be able to apply this idea of spoons and pebbles and energy levels to your own life to prevent burnout. I really hope you enjoyed today’s clinical psychology podcast episode. If you want to learn more, please check out: FREE 8 PSYCHOLOGY BOOK BOXSET Developmental Psychology. Available from all major eBook retailers and you can order the paperback and hardback copies from Amazon, your local bookstore and local library, if you request it. Buy Me A Coffee Have a great day. Clinical Psychology References https://butyoudontlooksick.com/articles/written-by-christine/the-spoon-theory/ https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/women-autism-spectrum-disorder/202211/what-is-the-spoons-theory-autism I truly hope that you’ve enjoyed this blog post and if you feel like supporting the blog on an ongoing basis and get lots of rewards, then please head to my Patreon page. However, if want to show one-time support and appreciation, the place to do that is PayPal. If you do that, please include your email address in the notes section, so I can say thank you. Which I am going to say right now. Thank you! Click https://www.buymeacoffee.com/connorwhiteley for a one-time bit of support. Click www.paypal.me/connorwhiteley1 to go to PayPal.

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  • PSYCHOLOGY BOOKS | Connor Whiteley

    PSYCHOLOGY BOOKS Here are my psychology books that are filled with easy to understand information for a great price. Click on the books below to see more information and access buy links for all online stores. Books are available in paperback, eBook, Large Print edition with a lot of the book available in Audio. You can buy my ebooks directly from me: www.payhip.com/connorwhiteley You can also get all my books for free if you request them on your library app or through your local Librarian. Psychology Book Collections and Boxsets Psychology of Stress: The video below on the psychology of stress; which dips into cognitive psychology social psychology; changed my life as now I believe that stress is good for you and this video shows how this thinking can help change and possibly save your life.

  • THE PSYCHOLOGY WORLD PODCAST| CONNOR WHITELEY

    The Psychology World Podcast by Connor Whiteley Do you want to learn about psychology? Do you want to learn about the latest psychology news? Do you want an enjoyable podcast that will teach you about psychology? If the answer is yes to any of those questions, then this is the podcast for you as you will learn about the many areas of psychology; like abnormal psychology and cognitive psychology; in an easy to understand way. By the end of each episode you will learn something interesting about psychology. So please join me for another episode of The Psychology World Podcast… The Psychology World Podcast Episodes: Episode 180- Is Person-First Or Diagnosis-First Language Better? Episode 179- Why Do Couples Breakup? Episode 178- How To Prevent Burnout In Autistic People and What Is Spoon Theory? Episode 177- How Can Psychotherapy Be Combined With Ketamine? Episode 176- What Is Neuromodulation? A Clinical Psychology and Cognitive Psychology Podcast Episode. Episode 175- Body Negativity In Boys and Why This Is A Silent Problem? Episode 174- 4 Factors That Cause Friendships To End. Episode 173- What Are The Benefits of Speaking Ill of The Dead For Trauma Survivors? Episode 172- What Are The Signs of Infidelity? Episode 171- Could Borderline Personality Disorder Be An Adaptation? Episode 170- What To Know When Looking For A Therapist? Episode 169- How To Promote A Healthy Gut-Brain Connection? Episode 168- 5 Ways To Live Longer According To Biological Psychology Episode 167- Why Most Online Trolls Have Subclinical Sadism? Episode 166- When Defence Mechanisms Interfere With Therapy? Episode 165- Why Is Dyslexia A Cognitive Strength, Not A Disorder? Episode 164- Who's More Likely To Recover From Psychosis? Episode 163- What Are New Treatments For Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder? Episode 162- What Is Coercive Control? Episode 161- What Is Gaslighting And When Is It Gaslighting? Episode 160- What Is The Criminal Psychology of Poisonings? Episode 159- What Links Russian Espionage And Evolutionary Psychology? Episode 158- Are Psychopaths Really More Likely To Be Successful? Episode 157- Is There A Better Diagnosis Model For Mental Health Conditions? Episode 156- Myths About Marriage Episode 155- 5 Harmful Myths About Child Sexual Abuse Episode 154- What Is Forensic Psychopathology? Episode 153- Is It Okay For Clients To Ask Psychotherapists Questions? Episode 152- Mental Health: What Is Admissible In Court? Episode 151- What Is The Case For Bibliotherapy? Episode 150- What Are The Mental Health Pros and Cons of Marijuana Use? Episode 149- 5 Things Therapists Shouldn't Do In Therapy Episode 148- Scandals, Weather and TV Adverts. Psychology of Voting Part 2. Episode 147- Psychology of Voting Part 1 Episode 146- 5 Ways Psychology Can Change Your Life Episode 145- How Beauty Amplifies A Psychopath's Natural Advantage? Episode 144- Why Do People Emotional Abuse Others? Episode 143- How Does Propaganda Work Against Opposition? Episode 142- What Happens When Therapists Are Attracted To Their Clients? Episode 141- How Does Propaganda Work? Episode 140- Suicide and Prisons. Episode 139- What Happens When Young People Go To War? Episode 138- How Dementia Impacts Criminal Behaviour? Episode 137- What's The Difference Between A Psychopath and Sociopath? Episode 136- Why Do People Think Psychology Is A Bad Career Choice? Episode 135- How Does Depression Impact Suicide? 3 Questions Answered Episode 134- Why Is It Difficult Domestic Abuse Against Men? Episode 133- Why Dementia Isn't A Diagnosis? Episode 132- What Are Forensic Psychology Careers? Episode 131- How Social Factors Impact Male Suicide and Suicide Prevention? Episode 130- Police Culture and Police Psychology Episode 129- Basics of Cult Psychology Episode 128- 5 New Ways To Keep Your Brain Healthy and Reduce Your Risk of Dementia. Episode 127- How To Boost Mental Health? Research From Clinical Psychology and Positive Psychology Episode 126- 5 Signs of Psychopathic Personality Episode 125- 5 Ways To Reduce Holiday Stress Episode 124- 5 Signs You Might Need Therapy For Psychology Students and Psychology Professionals Episode 123- What is Dementia and Types of Dementia? Episode 122- Male Suicide: A Silent Clinical Psychology Crisis Episode 121- Myths about Happiness. Episode 120- Paths To Becoming A Psychotherapist Episode 119- What Are The Benefits of Prioritising Friendships? Episode 118- How To Deal With An Angry Partner For University Psychology Students and professionals? Episode 117- 3 Tips To Stop Procrastination In Depressed People For University Students and Psychology Professionals. Episode 116- How 100 Year Olds Keep Their Minds Sharp? A Cognitive Psychology Podcast Episode. Episode 115- 4 Factors of Effective Psychotherapy Episode 114- Introduction To Personality Psychology Episode 113- Emotion and Cognition. Episode 112- How is Therapy Different Than Talking To Parents and Friends? Episode 111- In Defence Of Psychology... Episode 110- 3 Depression Myths Clinical Psychologists and Psychology Student Need To Know About. Episode 109- 3 Ways Your Brain Perceives The World Episode 108- How To Stop Rumination? Episode 107- 3 Awkward Things Clinical Psychologists Should Know In Psychotherapy Episode 106- How To Know If A Therapist Likes You? Episode 105- 3 New Tips To Help Build Psychological Resilience. Episode 104- How To Know If Your Therapist is A Match? Episode 103- How Success Can Change Personality? A Personality Psychology Episode. Episode 102- Where Depression Lives? Episode 101- 3 Surprising Facts About Gut Health and Behaviour. Episode 100- Lessons Learnt From 100 Episodes Of A Psychology Podcast Episode 99- What To Say To Someone When Someone's Died? Episode 98- 3 Beliefs That Can Harm Relationships Episode 97- Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to FBI Profiling Episode 96- Forensic Psychology of Shoplifting Episode 95- What Parents Should Know About Screen Time? Episode 94- How Do Narcissists Use Cult Leader Tactics To Control Others? Episode 93- What Can Your Client Do Yo Help With Their Psychotherapy? Episode 92- What Not To Say To Someone With Anxiety? Episode 91- Diversity Within Clinical Psychology and Clinical Psychology In Health Settings Episode 90- How Drugs Affect behaviour? A Biological and Clinical Psychology Podcast Episode. Episode 89- The Positives of Video Games and Interview With J. F Penn Reflection Episode 88- Why People Don't Help Others? A Social Psychology and Prosocial Behaviour Episode. Episode 87- Comments On Psychology of Religion and Psychology TV Programme Episode 86- Developmental Psychology: Can Children Learn From Video? Episode 85- My Thoughts On Genetic Treatments For Mental Health Conditions Episode 84- What Do Social Groups Do For Individuals? A Social Psychology Episode. Episode 83- Should Psychologists Be Able To Prescribe Medication: My Clinical Psychology Reflection Episode 82- What Causes Schizophrenia? Episode 81- The Timeless Debates In Psycholo9gy Episode 80- How Can Artificial intelligence Help Reduce Depression and Bipolar Disorder Misdiagnosis? Episode 79- Ways to Reduce Social Anxiety About Socialising After the Pandemic Episode 78- 5 Ways to Keep Your Brain Healthy and Reduce Your Risk of Getting Dementia Episode 77- How to Talk to Children About Mental Health Conditions? Episode 76- How To Make Anxiety Your Friend Using Clinical Psychology? Episode 75- What To DO When You or Your Clients Are Overwhelmed Using Clinical Psychology? Episode 74- 5 Myths About Hypnosis in Clinical Psychology Episode 73- 5 Harmful Thinking Patterns Using Cognitive and Clinical Psychology Episode 72-What Strong Relationships Have in Common? Episode 71- What Have You Lost or Found On Your Psychology Journey? Episode 70- How to Tell if Someone is Lying Using Psychology? Episode 69- The 'Fast Development= Risky Vaccine' Intuition and Consumer Lay theories Using Cognitive Psy chology Episode 68- How to Achieve your New Year resolutions? Episode 67- Approaches in Psychology for A Level Psychology Students Episode 66- How Couples Can Stop Arguing Using Social psychology? Episode 65- 3 Tips to Help You Avoid Christmas Gift Giving Mistakes Episode 64- 3 Tips to Help You Exercise More Episode 63-How can Social Media benefit Us? Episode 62- How to Help Men with their Mental Health? Episode 61- Psychology of Religion and Carl Jung with J. F Penn Episode 60- New Ways to Deal With Stress Episode 59- Can Halloween Benefit Our Mental Health? Episode 58- 3 Reasons We Get Bored in Relationships Episode 57- What is Formulation and Why is It Important? Episode 56- Should Psychologists Be Able To Prescribe Medication? Episode 55- Changing Visions 2040: Future of Psychology Episode 54- What is Clinical Psychology and Why is it Needed? Episode 53- 4 Personality Types Most Resilience During the Pandemic Episode 52- Why Do People Constantly Watch the News and How to Stay Optimistic During Difficult Times? Episode 51- 3 Tips to Help Build Resilience Episode 50- Psychology of Cults Episode 49- How Artificial Intelligence Could Impact Human Behaviour? My Predictions Episode 48- The Power of Re-framing a Mental Health Diagnosis Episode 47- The Ultimate Stress Reducer Episode 46- How Can You Help a Depressed Person? Episode 45- What influences language development? Episode 44- 5 Ways to help overcome social anxiety Episode 43- Why do more authentic people live happier lives? Episode 42- How can psychology help during the COVID-19 pandemic? BPS Conference 2020 highlights Episode 40- Differences in Sexual Interest Between Genders Episode 41-How to read people and decode facial expressions? Episode 38- Psychology of Cuteness and Why Your Need More of It in Your Life? Episode 39- How will Social Distancing Affect Child Development? Episode 37- How Does Racism Affect Your Health? Episode 36- What are Anxiety Disorders and Their Types? Episode 35- Myths About Apologies Episode 34- How Does Sleep Work? Episode 33- 5 Ways to Deal With Negative Thoughts Episode 32- Why Do We Have Such Large Brains? An Introduction to Social Cognition Episode 31- 5 Ways to Help a Friend With Grief Episode 30- Forensic Psychology: Does Treatment Work for Offenders? Episode 29- Forensic Psychology: Types of Legal Systems Episode 28- Forensic Psychology: Public and Crime Episode 27- Research Biases in Psychology Research Episode 26- Could Teletherapy be the Future of Psychotherapy? Episode 25- How to Increase Generalisability and Credibility in Psychology Research? Episode 24- What to Do During Lockdown Using Social Psychology? Episode 23- Research Types in Psychology Episode 22- How to Combat Loneliness During COVID-19 and Everyday Life? Episode 21- Developmental Psychology: How Poverty impacts Development Episode 20- Developmental Psychology: Role of Peers and Play in Child Development Episode 19- Developmental Psychology: Attachment Episode 18- Health Psychology: Social Reasons for why Obesity occurs Episode 17- Health Psychology: The Biopsychosocial Model Episode 16- Health Psychology: Biological Reasons for Obesity Episode 15- Forensic Psychology Episode 14- Bystanderism Episode 13- Cognitive Explanations for the Formation of Human Relationships Episode 12- Ethics in Psychology Episode 11- Abnormal Psychology: Treatment Options for Depression Episode 10- Abnormal Psychology: Cognitive Explanation for Depression Episode 9- What is Abnormal Psychology and Biological Explanation for Depression Episode 8-Social Cognitive Theory Episode 7- What is Social Psychology and Cultural Dimensions? Episode 6- Neurotransmitters Episode 5- Localisation Episode 4- What is Biological Psychology and Neuroplasticity? Episode 3- Reliability of Memory Episode 2- Thinking Biases Episode 1 - What is Psychology and Cognition in a Digital World

  • Sociocultural Psychology | Connor Whiteley

    Social Psychology: A Guide to Social and Cultural Psychology AMAZON KOBO OTHER STORES PAPERBACK This engaging 4th edition is perfect for psychology students and professionals alike! Do you want to learn why groups behave like they do? Do you want to learn how our groups influence us? Do you want to learn how our culture impacts our behaviour? ​ If the answer to any of these questions and more is yes, then this is the book for you! In this book, you’ll learn about social and cultural psychology and how this affects our behaviour all in an easy to understand and engaging way. This fascinating 4th Edition includes lots of brand new chapters on interesting topics. For example, the social psychology of cheating, freeriding, social cognition, deception and plenty more! By the end of this book, you’ll learn: What is social psychology? How our culture impacts our behaviour? Why groups behave as they do? How persuasion works and why it can fail? The psychology of aggression And more. BUY NOW! Social Psychology Content: Introduction Part One: Introduction to Social Psychology Chapter 1: History of Social psychology Chapter 2: How Do You do social psychology? Chapter 3: What Groups for The Individuals? Chapter 4; The Social Cure Hypothesis Chapter 5: The Self and Self-Awareness Chapter6: Theories of The Self Chapter 7: Self-Esteem Chapter 8: Attitudes and Social Cognition Chapter 9: Cognitive Dissonance Chapter 10: Social Identity Theory Chapter 1: Individual and Collective Narcissism Chapter 12: Social Cognitive Theory Part Two: The Social Group Chapter 13: The Social Group Chapter 14: Formation of The Group Chapter 15: Roles, Gender and More. Chapter 16: Negatives of Social Groups and Why social Groups Can Be Bad For Us? Chapter 17: Group Decision Making and The Hidden Profile Chapter 18: Why the Hidden Profile Profiles and How to Overcome the Hidden Profile? Chapter 19: Group Memory and The Group Think Phenomenon. Part Three: Intergroup Relations Chapter 20: Intergroup Relations Chapter 21: The Outgroup Chapter 22: Ideologies Chapter 23: Introduction to Sexism Chapter 24: Sexism Chapter 25: Ideologies Of Meritocracy And Why Ideologies Are Important? Chapter 26 Categorisation Approaches, Intergroup Contact and Intergroup Apology Chapter 28: Collective Action Part Four: Social Influence Chapter 29: Social Influence Chapter 30: Milgram (1965,1975) Chapter 31: Why People Conform Chapter 32: Controversies of The Experiments Part Five: Persuasion Chapter 33: Persuasion Chapter 34: The Message Chapter 35: The Method and Models Of Persuasions Chapter 36: Persuasion Techniques and When Persuasion Doesn’t Work? Part Six: Aggression and Cultural Psychology Chapter 37: Aggression, What Causes Aggression and Aggression in Sport Games Chapter 38: Cultural Dimensions Chapter 39: Enculturation and Acculturation Chapter 40: Globalisation Including many more fascinating chapters on topics like freeriding, social cognition, deception and more. BUY NOW!

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