# Psychological Statistics:

Welcome to the Psychology Statistics section of the website!

Personally, I quite like statistics but it doesn't mean I find it easy!

So, here are a list of psychology statistic questions and answers that I struggled with at first. Hopefully, these statistical questions will help you on your psychology journey.

Enjoy!

## What is a Type 1 Error?

A type 1 error is the rejection of a true null hypothesis.

## What is a Determined By In Statistics?

a is determined by the researcher.

## When are the Differences of The Means most relevant in Psychology Statistics?

The difference of the means is most relevant in an independent groups t-test analysis.

## What is not an assumption of a t-test?

Groups having different means is NOT an assumption of an independent t-test.

## What does a null hypothesis mean for an ANOVA?

A null hypothesis for an ANOVA is that none of the means are significantly different.

## When Do You Run A One-Way ANOVA in Psychology?

If you have a study with one independent variable and 3 levels, you need to run a single-factor ANOVA.

## What Tests Can A Bonferroni Test Be Used On?

A Bonferroni test can be run on pairwise pre-planned tests and pre-planned tests only.

## What Does Orthogonal Mean In Statistics?

Orthogonal means having variables that can be treated independently.

## How Do You Make Contrasts Orthogonal In Psychology Statistics?

For making contrasts orthogonal, you don’t have to have equated contrasts nor products of all the alternative conceptional contrasts equal zero.

## What is an F Statistic?

An F statistic is the value you get after running an ANOVA or regression analysis. This tells you if the means between the two population are significantly different.

## When Is a Two Way ANOVA Used?

A two-way ANOVA is used to analyse data from a study with two independent variables and as many levels as necessary.

## What is a Pairwise Analysis?

A pairwise analysis is a comparison between two levels of one IV level and a comparison between two conditions.

## How Can You Increase Statistical Power?

You can increase the statistical power by increasing a, increasing the sample size and increasing the difference between the means.

## Does Increasing the Variability of The Population Increase Statistical Power?

Increasing the variability of the population does not increase the statistical power of a psychology study.

## What Does a (alpha) Test in Statistics?

a (alpha) is the significance level in hypothesis test or acceptable probability of a type 1 error.

## What is Standard Deviation?

Standard deviation is the square root of variance.

## When is a One -Way ANOVA Used?

A one way ANOVA is used on data with 1 independent variable or factor with as many levels as necessary.

## What Type of Test is The Tukey’s ‘Honesty’ Significant Difference test?

The Tukey’s ‘Honesty’ significant difference test is a post-hoc test.

## What is a Grand Mean?

A Grand Mean is the average of the means of other cells or subgroups within the dataset.

## How Do You Compute a New Variable In SPSS?

In SPSS, to compute a new carriable you need to go to the Transform on the top bar. Then you need to select ‘Compute Variable’

## What is a t-Statistic?

The t-statistic is used in t-tests to determine where to support or reject the null hypothesis.

## How Do You Run Main Effects and Interaction Effects In SPSS?

To run main effects and interaction effects in SPSS, you need to run an ANOVA by going to SPSS analyse, General Linear Model and Univariate. Then you enter your IVs in the fixed factor box and your DV in the DV box.